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Rethinking Command and Control in the Era of Peer Warfare: The Imperative of Enhanced Control


The nature of warfare is rapidly evolving, and the rise of peer adversaries presents new challenges for military forces around the world. In this changing landscape, the concept of Command and Control (C2) must be rethought to ensure the effectiveness and success of operations. This article explores the necessity of re-evaluating C2, with a particular emphasis on the control element, in the face of peer warfare.

The Changing Dynamics of Warfare

The emergence of peer adversaries brings forth complex and sophisticated military capabilities, making traditional hierarchical command structures vulnerable. Adversaries can exploit the fog of war and rapidly adapt their strategies, challenging the decision-making processes of conventional C2 systems. As a result, there is an increased need for enhanced control mechanisms to enable real-time adjustments and proactive responses.

While command focuses on leadership and decision-making, control plays a crucial role in executing and coordinating operations. In the context of peer warfare, control becomes even more critical. It encompasses the ability to monitor and manipulate information, anticipate and counter enemy actions, synchronise forces, and adjust tactics dynamically. Effective control empowers commanders to maintain a comprehensive operational picture, rapidly allocate resources, and respond swiftly to emerging threats.

Agility and Decentralisation

Peer warfare often demands agility and decentralised decision-making. In contrast to hierarchical command structures, where information flows vertically, a more networked and distributed control approach enables faster decision-making and facilitates adaptive responses.

Empowering lower-level units with greater autonomy and control allows them to seize opportunities and respond to threats more effectively, leading to increased operational flexibility and resilience.

With this in mind, advancements in information and communication technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to enhance control in peer warfare. The utilisation of real-time data, advanced sensors, and networked systems can provide commanders with comprehensive situational awareness and facilitate rapid decision-making.

Furthermore, leveraging artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms can support commanders in processing vast amounts of information, detecting patterns, and generating actionable insights, thus bolstering control capabilities.

Human-Machine Teaming

The integration of humans and machines through human-machine teaming presents a significant avenue for enhancing control. By leveraging the strengths of both, military forces can achieve superior control over the battlespace. Autonomous systems, such as unmanned aerial vehicles and unmanned ground vehicles, can provide commanders with additional means of control, extending their reach and increasing their situational understanding. However, it is crucial to strike the right balance and ensure that humans retain ultimate control and decision-making authority.

Yet in the realm of peer warfare, control extends beyond the physical domain. The cyber and electromagnetic domains have become critical battlegrounds, where control over information, communication networks, and electronic warfare capabilities can tip the scales in favour of one side.

Robust cybersecurity measures, electronic warfare capabilities, and resilient communication networks are essential to maintain control over these domains and prevent adversaries from disrupting operations.


In the face of peer warfare, rethinking Command and Control becomes imperative, with a renewed emphasis on enhancing control capabilities. The dynamics of modern warfare demand agility, decentralisation, and the integration of advanced technologies to achieve superior control over the battlespace.

By leveraging enhanced control mechanisms, military forces can effectively counter peer adversaries, adapt to rapidly changing conditions, and maintain the initiative in complex operational environments.

Embracing the evolving nature of warfare and investing in innovative approaches to C2 will be crucial for success in future conflicts.

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